Birth control can be obtained either by visiting your family doctor or a gynecologist. You may not be able to find the same brand of pill in Israel that you use back home. Check what your health insurance covers and what you will have to pay for out of pocket.
Condoms can be purchased in several locations: for the biggest selection, head to SuperPharm or NewPharm. You can also find them at the Akademon (basement floor of the Zlotowski Student Center) and sometimes at small corner stores. One place you are not likely to find them is the supermarket. The morning-after pill can be purchased over-the-counter at pharmacies for around 150 NIS.